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The two main theses of “The Natural Right of Property” are i that persons possess an original.



non acquired right not to be precluded from making extra




Yarilet Perez Investopedia

Laura Porter What Are Property Rights.



Property rights define the theoretical and legal ownership of




Rewriting Nature. Published online 11. Article. The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European .



THE NATURAL RIGHTS THEORIES In order to justify IPR
the natural right theories considers that everyone has a natural property right on their


The property rights and ownership of a property can be claimed through copyrights and patents to protect the following Diminishing supplies.



such as land .







If one looks around in the surroundings.



everything available may be categorized as Property. Every object.

whether tangible or intangible having some value .





This paper also deals with the meaning of IPR.

Nature.



scope amp sorts of IPRs property rights IPR are defined as ideas
inventions.

and artistic expressions .



Rights to own land and to establish businesses are seen as crucial for wealth creation e g private plots to farm Protec




Updated What Are Property Rights.

At first glance.

the definition of property rights seems very straightforward. We define property rights as a right to specific property.



...



While a Blackstonian view of property envisaged a “despotic dominion” of an owner over a thing
property has never been so absolute. In fact.





as I argue in this .



New round of student loan debt forgiveness will erase balances for

A tweak to how the federal Education Department calculates student .



Intense rain and flash flooding that left at least one dead in southeastern New York continued to pelt the Northeast on

forcing residents from their homes and



Authorship and Ownership in copyright
of this Act recognizes the author as the first owner.

which states that subject to the provision of this Act
the author of a work shall be the first owner of the copyright therein In the case of literary or dramatic composition.



the author.

In the case of musical work.



the musician





Introduction Intellectual Property IP deals with any basic construction of human intelligence such as artistic
literary
technical or scientific constructions. Intellectual Property Rights IPR .



18 idea of property is multi faceted The term ‘ property ’ is commonly used to describe types of property
both real and personal. ‘Real’ property encompasses interests in land and fixtures or structures upon the land. ‘Personal’ property encompasses tangible or ‘corporeal’ thingschattels or goods.

like a car or a table..



I. Characteristics of Intellectual Property Rights IPR Laws Intangible Property Intellectual property does not cover the physical object.



which was made
but it preserves the conceptual development behind the physical object. Creation of Statute In fact.



intellectual property is derived from common law.



and it is covered under specific


Copyright refers to the legal right of the owner of intellectual property. In simpler terms.



copyright is the right to copy This means that the original creator of a

Khazan Singh 1 defining the right of pre emption stated
“The right of pre emption is not a right to the thing sold but a right to the offer of a thing about to be sold This



RIGHT TO PROPERTY the Constitution originally provided for the right to property under


guaranteed to all citizens the right to acquire.





hold and dispose of property



Property is frequently defined as the rights of a person with respect to a thing. The difficulties with this definition have long plagued legal theorists. The same problem of definition occurs in non Western societies as well. In Russia.



for example

the word property
sobstvennost can have various meanings





Introduction Sub of of the Companies defines “Shares” as.



“Share” means a share in the share capital of a company including stocks. Shares are considered as a type of security. Securities is defined in the Sub of of the said Act.





which refers to the definition of the securities as .





Nature of IP Rights 1 The IP rights are intangible rights over the tangible rights 2 If there is an infringement in t

the owner of such rights has the right to sue such party for the infringement. 3.There are rights as well as duties on the owner. It means that IP does not only confer the rights



A mortgage is a transfer of an interest in specific immovable property as a security for the repayment of debt Justice

as understood in this country.

cannot be defined better than by the definition adopted by the legislature in.





TPA ” The Supreme Court in Kedar Lal v


The Transfer of Property Act

1882 TOPA is the primary act which regulates the transfer of property in India It has a wide purview and it includes m


as

“In the following Sections

‘transfer pf property ’ means an act



Trespass can be said to be an action exceeding the limit carved by the law It is an intentionally directed
unreasonable interference with one’s person and property The word ‘intention’ here implies committing the wrong


Meaning of Transferable Property Any property which is transferable


it can be passed or moved from one person or organization to another and used by them to the transfer of property act

tha t property of any kind may be transferred.

except those which are provided by this act or by any other law for the time


Introduction of the transfer of property act deals with the concept of what may be transferred Property and interests
and it should also be noted that the very transferability of the property is based on the maxim ‘alienation rei prefe and the meaning of the



Natural law is a philosophy that is based on the idea that “ right ” and “wrong” are universal concepts.

as mankind finds certain things to be useful and good
and other things to be bad
destructive.

or evil This means that
what constitutes “ right ” and “wrong

” is the same for everyone.





and this concept is expressed as


Concept.



Scope and Nature of Intellectual Property Rights The division of property as movable and immovable

if it is tangible.



was known in Roman law and has been adopted by modern Civil Codes. This kind of classification is also provided under art. the Civil Code. However.



“as a result of the industrial revolution and the rapid .







concealment of documents and falsification of pedigrees. 1 Any person disposing of property or any interest therein for money or money’s worth to a purchaser.

or the solicitor or other agent of such person
who a conceals from the purchaser any instrument or incumbrance material to the title or


Registration Act also includes immovable property benefits to arise out of the land
hereditary allowances.

right of way.

lights.



ferries and fisheries In Anand Behera v State of Orissa

the right to catch away fish from Chilka lake.

over a number of years
was held to be an equivalent of profits a pendre in England and a


Real property
also referred to as real estate.

realty or immovable property.





is any property attached directly to land as well as the land itself. It is any subset of land that has been improved .







What is Transfer of Property Act.



Under the Indian legal system


properties are divided into two categories movable and immovable. The Transfer of Property Act ToPA.



1882

which came into force on


deals with the aspects of transfer of properties between living beings. One of the oldest laws in the Indian legal system.

the .



Firstly.

the invention must be novel

meaning thereby that the Invention must not be in existence Secondly
the Invention must be non obvious


i.e. the Invention must be a significant improvement to the previous one mere change in technology will not give the right of the patent to the inventor..



Modes of Acquisition of Property.



when possession ripens into ownership. There are four important modes of the acquisition of property. They are Possession.



Prescription.



Agreement and Inheritance. These four modes may be put in two classes Acquisition inter Vivos it includes possession.



prescription and agreement..







Nature of property • in the TP Act
property is used as • Tangible material things land

house.

furniture

jewellery.



etc • Rights which are exercised over material things. to enjoy.



possess


to sell
to gift etc • Rights which are not exercised over any material things to repayment of a debt • Property means a pro




The objective of copyright is to safeguard the author or the creator from unauthorized reproduction of his creation. The domain of copyright is literary and artistic works.



like writings.





musicals and works of fine arts

such as paintings and sculptures

as well as technology based works such as computer programs and electronic database..







Immovable property is commonly referred to as real estate a residential house.

a warehouse
a manufacturing unit or a factory. The plants or trees that are attached to the earth are referred to as immovable property. In reality.

they remain liable to legal statutes and taxation In contrast

movable property refers to certain valuable .





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